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June 2014 Newsletter now out!

It is our pleasure to share with you our latest Cities Biodiversity Center Newsletter. This issue we look at the many important conferences that are taking place in 2014, such as COP12 and Resilient Cities. We also have a look at new projects and tools that are striving to increase biodiversity on an international level. We trust you will find it both insightful and interesting!
 
 
 

 

 

 

 "The road to sustainability runs through our cities and towns"

 Ban Ki Moon (UN Secretary General)

Today, ICLEI’s Cities Biodiversity Centre involves a global alliance of various partners who together aspire to reconcile urban development with the conservation of ecosystems and the sustainable use of natural resources – a quest to engender cities with greater socio-ecological resilience in the context of global change. 

The Cities Biodiversity Center

ICLEI’s Cities Biodiversity Centre is coordinated by the ICLEI Africa Secretariat and is located in Cape Town, the Republic of South Africa. The Centre has a dedicated team of passionate, skilled and dynamic biodiversity experts and offers cities a broad portfolio of supportive services, including: capacity development and up-skilling, technical advice, advocacy support, networking forums, profiling of achievements and conference organization to name a few.  The Cities Biodiversity Centre shares a common recognition of the crucial role that cities and local governments play in the pursuit of a greener, safer and more prosperous existence and all our efforts are committed to paving the way to a more sustainable future through the collaborative design and implementation of integrated urban development and effective biodiversity management solutions.

Abu Dhabi
AMA Pangea Brazil
Bergrivier Municipality
Brussels Capital Region
Cape Winelands District Municipality, South Africa
City of Amsterdam
City of Aukland, New Zealand
City of Barcelona, Spain
City of Bonn, Germany
City of Cape Town, South Africa
City of Cascais, Portugal
City of Curitiba
City of Edmonton, Canada
City of Helsingborg, Sweden
City of Jerusalem, Israel
City of Johannesburg
City of Joondalup, Australia
City of Leicester
City of Liverpool, Australia
City of Manaus, Brazil
City of Mandurah, Australia
City of Montreal, Canada
City of Nagoya, Japan
City of Nioro du Rip, Senegal
City of São Paulo, Brazil
City of Tilburg, Netherlands
City of Tshwane, South Africa
City of Waitakere, New Zealand
City of Zagreb
Cornell University
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions
Ekurhuleni Municipality, South Africa
eThekwini Municipality (Durban), South Africa
Fortaleza, Brazil
Grande-Synthe, France
Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, India
Île de France
Instituto Sustentar, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
International Political Science Association
Inverde (Research Institute for Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Kaohsiung, Taiwan
King County, Washington
Lake Victoria Regional Local Authorities Cooperation (Entebbe), Uganda
Lilongwe City, Malawi
Mexico City
Montpellier, France
Nelson Mandela Municipality, South Africa
New York Sea Grant, USA
Petaling Jaya City Council, Malaysia
Seoul Metropolitan Government, South Korea
Sol Plaatje Municipality, South Africa
Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden
The City of Calgary
The Nature of Cities, Sound Science LLC, New York, USA
Tishman Environment & Design Center, The New School, NY
University of Tunku Abdhul Rahman, Malaysia
Vacoas Phoenix, Mauritius
Walvis Bay, Namibia
Windhoek, Namibia
Xtremas.Org, Costa Rica
Abu Dhabi Case Study- Mangroves in the City
Case Study: Assessing the natural assets of Cape Town, South Africa
City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
City of Barcelona Case Study 1- School Agenda 21
City of Barcelona Case Study 2- Planning for a green urban corridor
City of Barcelona Case Study 3- Protecting urban birds
City of Bonn Case Study 1-Meadow Programme
City of Bonn Case Study 2- Stadtwald municipal forest
City of Curitiba, Case Study 2- Reintroduction of ornamental indigenous plant species
City of Curitiba, Cast Study 1- BioCity Programe
City of Edmonton, Case Study-Edmonton's ecological network
City of eThekwini, Durban, South Africa
City of Joondalup's Public Participation Policy
Combating invasive alien species in Dublin's waterways
Edmonton, Canada - Valuing Trees in Edmonton, Canada
eThekwini, Case Study 2- Economic value of Durban’s biodiversity
eThekwkini, Case Study 1- Durban Metropolitan Open Space System
Inverde Case Study- Mainstreaming Urban Nature in Rio
Manaus Case Study 1- Saium-Castanheiras Wildlife Refuge
Manaus Case Study 2- Urban afforestation
New Place
The Green Wedges of Greater Stockholm
uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa
Maps Keys
Ecosystem Services

AICHI Targets

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Search for case study by:

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What does this map do?

This interactive map is designed to allow you to search for biodiversity case studies from around the world by,

  1. Local government;
  2. Specific project;
  3. Ecosystem service; or
  4. Aichi Target.

Your search results will become highlighted dots on the map. Each variable you choose will narrow your search for a particular case study.

What are the icons in the top blue bar?

These are the symbols for Aichi Targets and for ecosystem services as taken from The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. You will find detailed explanations of each TEEB ecosystem service and Aichi Target by clicking the 'Key' on the right hand panel of the map. To return to the map, click the 'Go back' button.

How do I search for a particular case study

- To search for a particular case study or set of case studies, by Aichi Target or ecosystem service, simply click on the symbol ( or multiple symbols) in the top bar of the map. You will notice that the Aichi Targets or ecosystem services that you click on become displayed on the left hand panel. You can remove these searches by clicking on the small x. Each symbol you click will narrow your search.

- If you are looking for case studies from a particular project (i.e. LAB), then simply click on the particular project you are looking for under the Projects title.

Note: You can also have multiple layered searches for very particular case studies by clicking on the particular elements you are searching for.

E.g. You are looking for an URBIS case studies that deals with the ecosystem service of carbon sequestration and addresses Aichi Target 3.

  1. Click on the Carbon TEEB icon in the top blue bar
  2. Click on URBIS project under URBIS
  3. Click on Aichi Target 3

You will see the relevant case study appear: e.g. Saium-Castanheiras Wildlife Refuge

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Aesthetic

Language, knowledge and the natural environment have been intimately related throughout human history. Biodiversity, ecosystems and natural landscapes have been the source of inspiration for much of our art, culture and increasingly for science.

Biocontrol

Ecosystems are important for regulating pests and vector borne diseases that attack plants, animals and people. Ecosystems regulate pests and diseases through the activities of predators and parasites. Birds, bats, flies, wasps, frogs and fungi all act as natural controls.

Carbon

Ecosystems regulate the global climate by storing and sequestering greenhouse gases. As trees and plants grow, they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and effectively lock it away in their tissues. In this way forest ecosystems are carbon stores. Biodiversity also plays an important role by improving the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to the effects of climate change.

Climate

Trees provide shade whilst forests influence rainfall and water availability both locally and regionally. Trees or other plants also play an important role in regulating air quality by removing pollutants from the atmosphere.

Erosion

Soil erosion is a key factor in the process of land degradation and desertification. Vegetation cover provides a vital regulating service by preventing soil erosion. Soil fertility is essential for plant growth and agriculture and well functioning ecosystems supply the soil with nutrients required to support plant growth.

Food

Ecosystems provide the conditions for growing food. Food comes principally from managed agro-ecosystems but marine and freshwater systems or forests also provide food for human consumption. Wild foods from forests are often underestimated.

Fresh Water

Ecosystems play a vital role in the global hydrological cycle, as they regulate the flow and purification of water. Vegetation and forests influence the quantity of water available locally.

Genetic

Genetic diversity is the variety of genes between and within species populations. Genetic diversity distinguishes different breeds or races from each other thus providing the basis for locally well-adapted cultivars and a gene pool for further developing commercial crops and livestock. Some habitats have an exceptionally high number of species which makes them more genetically diverse than others and are known as ?biodiversity hotspots?.

Habitat

Habitats provide everything that an individual plant or animal needs to survive: food; water; and shelter. Each ecosystem provides different habitats that can be essential for a species? lifecycle. Migratory species including birds, fish, mammals and insects all depend upon different ecosystems during their movements.

Material

Ecosystems provide a great diversity of materials for construction and fuel including wood, biofuels and plant oils that are directly derived from wild and cultivated plant species.

Medicinal

Ecosystems and biodiversity provide many plants used as traditional medicines as well as providing the raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry. All ecosystems are a potential source of medicinal resources.

Moderation

Extreme weather events or natural hazards include floods, storms, tsunamis, avalanches and landslides. Ecosystems and living organisms create buffers against natural disasters, thereby preventing possible damage. For example, wetlands can soak up flood water whilst trees can stabilize slopes. Coral reefs and mangroves help protect coastlines from storm damage.

Pollination

Insects and wind pollinate plants and trees which is essential for the development of fruits, vegetables and seeds. Animal pollination is an ecosystem service mainly provided by insects but also by some birds and bats. Some 87 out of the 115 leading global food crops depend upon animal pollination including important cash crops such as cocoa and coffee (Klein et al. 2007).

Recreation

Walking and playing sports in green space is not only a good form of physical exercise but also lets people relax. The role that green space plays in maintaining mental and physical health is increasingly being recognized, despite difficulties of measurement.

Spiritual

In many parts of the world natural features such as specific forests, caves or mountains are considered sacred or have a religious meaning. Nature is a common element of all major religions and traditional knowledge, and associated customs are important for creating a sense of belonging.

Tourism

Ecosystems and biodiversity play an important role for many kinds of tourism which in turn provides considerable economic benefits and is a vital source of income for many countries. In 2008 global earnings from tourism summed up to US$ 944 billion. Cultural and eco-tourism can also educate people about the importance of biological diversity.

Water Purification

Ecosystems such as wetlands filter both human and animal waste and act as a natural buffer to the surrounding environment. Through the biological activity of microorganisms in the soil, most waste is broken down. Thereby pathogens (disease causing microbes) are eliminated, and the level of nutrients and pollution is reduced.

Icons designed by Jan Sasse for TEEB
click anywhere to close key
Target 1

By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.

Target 2

By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

Target 3

By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions.

Target 4

By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Target 5

By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

Target 6

By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

Target 7

By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

Target 8

By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.

Target 9

By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment.

Target 10

By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Target 11

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

Target 12

By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

Target 13

By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.

Target 14

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

Target 15

By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

Target 16

By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.

Target 17

By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan.

Target 18

By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.

Target 19

By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied.

Target 20

By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

AICHI Target Icons Copyright BIP/SCBD
Case Studies from around the world
Click on icon to search by ecosystem service
Aesthetic
Biocontrol
Carbon
Climate
Erosion
Food
Fresh Water
Genetic
Habitat
Material
Medicinal
Moderation
Pollination
Recreation
Spiritual
Tourism
Water Purification
Click arrows to switch to Aichi Targets
Click on icon to search by Aichi Target
Target 1
Target 2
Target 3
Target 4
Target 5
Target 6
Target 7
Target 8
Target 9
Target 10
Target 11
Target 12
Target 13
Target 14
Target 15
Target 16
Target 17
Target 18
Target 19
Target 20
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Why are local governments so important?

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There is a well-recognised inter-connectivity between biodiversity conservation, poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Humankind and all other forms of life directly depend on biodiversity for their very existence. Our rich biodiversity forms an ecological treasure chest used by humankind for agricultural, medicinal, horticultural, structural, spiritual and many other purposes. Cities take up only about 2% of the world’s land area, yet they consume 75% of all resources, and therefore utilise far more resources than those contained within their boundaries. This highlights the critical role that local governments play in the management and conservation of biodiversity in the urban context. Local governments are in the front-line for managing urban biodiversity, and can have a significant impact on conserving and managing the world’s biodiversity in a sustainable manner.

The Convention on Biological Diversity

CBD

The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)'s role is to facilitate the Global Partnership on Local and Sub-national Action for Biodiversity with the goal of supporting the partners and initiatives implementing the CBD. The CBD recognizes that providing an appropriate institutional framework for optimizing synergies between Parties, UN and development agencies, NGOs and networks of cities is of crucial importance to implementing the Plan of Action on Sub-National Governments, Cities and Other Local Authorities on Biodiversity 2011-2020.

Signing of the MoU On 15 October 2012, on the occasion of the Cities for Life Summit at CBD COP 11, ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability and the Secretariat of the CBD signed an MoU; recognising the significant global benefits of strengthening collaboration towards integrated and coordinated activities in support of biodiversity and ecosystem management at the local level and reinforcing already close connections between the two organisations.

The MoU includes various areas for cooperation surrounding mobilizing local governments through various programmes, embracing ICLEI’s BiodiverCities Program, Local Action for Biodiversity (LAB) as well as the Urban Biosphere (URBIS) Initiative and the Cities in Biodiversity Hotspots Program. Additionally, ICLEI will play a supporting and co-convening role in the Global Partnership on Local and Sub-national Action for Biodiversity and agrees to take up a seat on the Steering Committee.

The Aichi Targets

The Aichi Biodiversity Targets are 20 ambitious goals that make up part of the CBD’s Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, adopted in Nagoya, Japan, in 2010. The targets provide a framework for action by all stakeholders—including cities—to save biodiversity and enhance its benefits for people. Here are a few of the targets most prevalent to local governments:

AICHI TARGET 1: By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.

No level of government can reach citizens for education, communication, and awareness-raising as regularly, clearly, and effectively as city officers. National governments need to help cities achieve this target.

AICHI TARGET 2: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

Mainstreaming of biodiversity needs to be done at national as well as sub-national and local levels to be effective. Biodiversity values are different for each level of “vertical” (i.e., national, provincial, and local) and “horizontal” (i.e., divisions such as environment, planning, transportation, education, finance, and nutrition) government.

AICHI TARGET 3: By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions.

Local governments have key mandates on this target. Strategies include facilitating licensing of green businesses, enforcing environmental regulations, providing incentives for new (and greener) technologies (such as tax breaks or free land/infrastructure), promoting and attracting green investors, and mainstreaming of “payment for ecosystems services” mechanisms.

AICHI TARGET 4: By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Means of production and modes of consumption are dictated by norms, regulations, and negotiations happening in cities. Local governments—by their business licensing and law-enforcement mandates, close relations with large corporations, and landscape management tools they have at close range—are arguably THE level of government that can achieve this target.

AICHI TARGET 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

Cities can help preserve forests and wetlands of critical biodiversity by ensuring the connectivity of existing and future protected areas. Managing footprints (best done at the provincial, state, or regional level) can also make a difference.

AICHI TARGET 11: By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

In the USA, out of $81 billion invested in biodiversity (most of it in the design, establishment, and operation of protected areas) 008, $61 billion came from local authorities. Parkways, corridors, and municipal and provincial parks (public and private) arguably can make the difference in reaching this target.

AICHI TARGET 12: By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

Campaigns by scientific institutions, zoos, museums, and aquariums — where city and regional authorities often have a managing interest — can raise critical attention and funds and provide technical assistance for the conservation of threatened species, even across the globe.

AICHI TARGET 15: By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

No other level of government does as much restoration as local governments. Many “brown” and transition (ex-industrial) areas under city governments are either in the process of being restored or could be. City governments can also promote the use of green infrastructure and roofing.

AICHI TARGET 17: By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan.

Cities are encouraged to develop local strategies and action plans on biodiversity in support of national strategies.

AICHI TARGET 18: By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.

At least 40 percent of the world’s indigenous peoples now live in cities. Traditional knowledge and the importance it bestows to biodiversity therefore need to be integrated into urban planning. Cities in Panama, Guatemala, Bolivia, Venezuela, Fiji, Samoa, and Indonesia, among many others, possess significant indigenous populations that should be engaged in sustainable urbanization and city management.

AICHI TARGET 20: By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

Innovative financing is one of the solutions that will be found at provincial and municipal levels. Most Payment for Ecosystem Services mechanisms (for watersheds or temperature regulation, for example) and examples of tourism revenues accruing to park systems through concessions, for instance, come from sub-national or local governments.

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Abu Dhabi
AMA Pangea Brazil
Bergrivier Municipality
Brussels Capital Region
Cape Winelands District Municipality, South Africa
City of Amsterdam
City of Aukland, New Zealand
City of Barcelona, Spain
City of Bonn, Germany
City of Cape Town, South Africa
City of Cascais, Portugal
City of Curitiba
City of Edmonton, Canada
City of Helsingborg, Sweden
City of Jerusalem, Israel
City of Johannesburg
City of Joondalup, Australia
City of Leicester
City of Liverpool, Australia
City of Manaus, Brazil
City of Mandurah, Australia
City of Montreal, Canada
City of Nagoya, Japan
City of Nioro du Rip, Senegal
City of São Paulo, Brazil
City of Tilburg, Netherlands
City of Tshwane, South Africa
City of Waitakere, New Zealand
City of Zagreb
Cornell University
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Dutch Research Institute For Transitions
Ekurhuleni Municipality, South Africa
eThekwini Municipality (Durban), South Africa
Fortaleza, Brazil
Grande-Synthe, France
Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, India
Île de France
Instituto Sustentar, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
International Political Science Association
Inverde (Research Institute for Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecology), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Kaohsiung, Taiwan
King County, Washington
Lake Victoria Regional Local Authorities Cooperation (Entebbe), Uganda
Lilongwe City, Malawi
Mexico City
Montpellier, France
Nelson Mandela Municipality, South Africa
New York Sea Grant, USA
Petaling Jaya City Council, Malaysia
Seoul Metropolitan Government, South Korea
Sol Plaatje Municipality, South Africa
Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm, Sweden
The City of Calgary
The Nature of Cities, Sound Science LLC, New York, USA
Tishman Environment & Design Center, The New School, NY
University of Tunku Abdhul Rahman, Malaysia
Vacoas Phoenix, Mauritius
Walvis Bay, Namibia
Windhoek, Namibia
Xtremas.Org, Costa Rica
Abu Dhabi Case Study- Mangroves in the City
Case Study: Assessing the natural assets of Cape Town, South Africa
City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
City of Barcelona Case Study 1- School Agenda 21
City of Barcelona Case Study 2- Planning for a green urban corridor
City of Barcelona Case Study 3- Protecting urban birds
City of Bonn Case Study 1-Meadow Programme
City of Bonn Case Study 2- Stadtwald municipal forest
City of Curitiba, Case Study 2- Reintroduction of ornamental indigenous plant species
City of Curitiba, Cast Study 1- BioCity Programe
City of Edmonton, Case Study-Edmonton's ecological network
City of eThekwini, Durban, South Africa
City of Joondalup's Public Participation Policy
Combating invasive alien species in Dublin's waterways
Edmonton, Canada - Valuing Trees in Edmonton, Canada
eThekwini, Case Study 2- Economic value of Durban’s biodiversity
eThekwkini, Case Study 1- Durban Metropolitan Open Space System
Inverde Case Study- Mainstreaming Urban Nature in Rio
Manaus Case Study 1- Saium-Castanheiras Wildlife Refuge
Manaus Case Study 2- Urban afforestation
New Place
The Green Wedges of Greater Stockholm
uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, South Africa
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What does this map do?

This interactive map is designed to allow you to search for biodiversity case studies from around the world by,

  1. Local government;
  2. Specific project;
  3. Ecosystem service; or
  4. Aichi Target.

Your search results will become highlighted dots on the map. Each variable you choose will narrow your search for a particular case study.

What are the icons in the top blue bar?

These are the symbols for Aichi Targets and for ecosystem services as taken from The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. You will find detailed explanations of each TEEB ecosystem service and Aichi Target by clicking the 'Key' on the right hand panel of the map. To return to the map, click the 'Go back' button.

How do I search for a particular case study

- To search for a particular case study or set of case studies, by Aichi Target or ecosystem service, simply click on the symbol ( or multiple symbols) in the top bar of the map. You will notice that the Aichi Targets or ecosystem services that you click on become displayed on the left hand panel. You can remove these searches by clicking on the small x. Each symbol you click will narrow your search.

- If you are looking for case studies from a particular project (i.e. LAB), then simply click on the particular project you are looking for under the Projects title.

Note: You can also have multiple layered searches for very particular case studies by clicking on the particular elements you are searching for.

E.g. You are looking for an URBIS case studies that deals with the ecosystem service of carbon sequestration and addresses Aichi Target 3.

  1. Click on the Carbon TEEB icon in the top blue bar
  2. Click on URBIS project under URBIS
  3. Click on Aichi Target 3

You will see the relevant case study appear: e.g. Saium-Castanheiras Wildlife Refuge

click anywhere to close key
Aesthetic

Language, knowledge and the natural environment have been intimately related throughout human history. Biodiversity, ecosystems and natural landscapes have been the source of inspiration for much of our art, culture and increasingly for science.

Biocontrol

Ecosystems are important for regulating pests and vector borne diseases that attack plants, animals and people. Ecosystems regulate pests and diseases through the activities of predators and parasites. Birds, bats, flies, wasps, frogs and fungi all act as natural controls.

Carbon

Ecosystems regulate the global climate by storing and sequestering greenhouse gases. As trees and plants grow, they remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and effectively lock it away in their tissues. In this way forest ecosystems are carbon stores. Biodiversity also plays an important role by improving the capacity of ecosystems to adapt to the effects of climate change.

Climate

Trees provide shade whilst forests influence rainfall and water availability both locally and regionally. Trees or other plants also play an important role in regulating air quality by removing pollutants from the atmosphere.

Erosion

Soil erosion is a key factor in the process of land degradation and desertification. Vegetation cover provides a vital regulating service by preventing soil erosion. Soil fertility is essential for plant growth and agriculture and well functioning ecosystems supply the soil with nutrients required to support plant growth.

Food

Ecosystems provide the conditions for growing food. Food comes principally from managed agro-ecosystems but marine and freshwater systems or forests also provide food for human consumption. Wild foods from forests are often underestimated.

Fresh Water

Ecosystems play a vital role in the global hydrological cycle, as they regulate the flow and purification of water. Vegetation and forests influence the quantity of water available locally.

Genetic

Genetic diversity is the variety of genes between and within species populations. Genetic diversity distinguishes different breeds or races from each other thus providing the basis for locally well-adapted cultivars and a gene pool for further developing commercial crops and livestock. Some habitats have an exceptionally high number of species which makes them more genetically diverse than others and are known as ?biodiversity hotspots?.

Habitat

Habitats provide everything that an individual plant or animal needs to survive: food; water; and shelter. Each ecosystem provides different habitats that can be essential for a species? lifecycle. Migratory species including birds, fish, mammals and insects all depend upon different ecosystems during their movements.

Material

Ecosystems provide a great diversity of materials for construction and fuel including wood, biofuels and plant oils that are directly derived from wild and cultivated plant species.

Medicinal

Ecosystems and biodiversity provide many plants used as traditional medicines as well as providing the raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry. All ecosystems are a potential source of medicinal resources.

Moderation

Extreme weather events or natural hazards include floods, storms, tsunamis, avalanches and landslides. Ecosystems and living organisms create buffers against natural disasters, thereby preventing possible damage. For example, wetlands can soak up flood water whilst trees can stabilize slopes. Coral reefs and mangroves help protect coastlines from storm damage.

Pollination

Insects and wind pollinate plants and trees which is essential for the development of fruits, vegetables and seeds. Animal pollination is an ecosystem service mainly provided by insects but also by some birds and bats. Some 87 out of the 115 leading global food crops depend upon animal pollination including important cash crops such as cocoa and coffee (Klein et al. 2007).

Recreation

Walking and playing sports in green space is not only a good form of physical exercise but also lets people relax. The role that green space plays in maintaining mental and physical health is increasingly being recognized, despite difficulties of measurement.

Spiritual

In many parts of the world natural features such as specific forests, caves or mountains are considered sacred or have a religious meaning. Nature is a common element of all major religions and traditional knowledge, and associated customs are important for creating a sense of belonging.

Tourism

Ecosystems and biodiversity play an important role for many kinds of tourism which in turn provides considerable economic benefits and is a vital source of income for many countries. In 2008 global earnings from tourism summed up to US$ 944 billion. Cultural and eco-tourism can also educate people about the importance of biological diversity.

Water Purification

Ecosystems such as wetlands filter both human and animal waste and act as a natural buffer to the surrounding environment. Through the biological activity of microorganisms in the soil, most waste is broken down. Thereby pathogens (disease causing microbes) are eliminated, and the level of nutrients and pollution is reduced.

Icons designed by Jan Sasse for TEEB
click anywhere to close key
Target 1

By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.

Target 2

By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.

Target 3

By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions.

Target 4

By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.

Target 5

By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.

Target 6

By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

Target 7

By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.

Target 8

By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.

Target 9

By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment.

Target 10

By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.

Target 11

By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.

Target 12

By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

Target 13

By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.

Target 14

By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.

Target 15

By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.

Target 16

By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.

Target 17

By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan.

Target 18

By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.

Target 19

By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied.

Target 20

By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.

AICHI Target Icons Copyright BIP/SCBD
Case Studies from around the world
Click on icon to search by ecosystem service
Aesthetic
Biocontrol
Carbon
Climate
Erosion
Food
Fresh Water
Genetic
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Material
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Moderation
Pollination
Recreation
Spiritual
Tourism
Water Purification
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Click on icon to search by Aichi Target
Target 1
Target 2
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